Some have probably worked well, while others appear to have failed. Consequently, the devastated trees headed inland producing large amounts of waste, and may have caused more destruction. Tōhokun maanjäristys (jap. Japan’s earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning system is one of the most sophisticated -- and costliest -- in the world, befitting an economically … Published online 29 March 2011 | Nature 471, 556-557 (2011) | doi:10.1038/471556a . How high should buildings be, so that the inhabitants can survive? Paleoseismological studies suggested the predecessor of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake had been the 869 Jogan earthquake [13,14]. For instance, based on the findings regarding the structural vulnerability (figure 3), Sendai city determined a reconstruction plan [49] to reduce the tsunami flow depth to less than 2 m in the populated area with a conceptual image of multiple coastal protection (figure 4). The highest tsunami run-up height was 38 m at Ryori Shirahama in Iwate prefecture. These plans consist of the combination of structural prevention/mitigation, urban planning, preparedness and provide suggestions for land-use management, relocation, housing reconstruction and tsunami disaster mitigation plans. On this basis, the maximum potential earthquake in the Tohoku region was estimated as Mw 8.5. The 2011 tsunami disaster also implied that hazard maps have two functional aspects. In dieser Riaküstenregion kam es zwischen dem 38. und 40. Some areas are more protected than others, mostly in the northern coastal areas of the country. Text by: RFI Follow 2 min. With the participation of researchers from throughout Japan, joint research groups conducted a tsunami survey along a 2000 km stretch of the Japanese coast. Andrew Moore was tsunami researcher in Japan, says nation very prepared for disaster; He says high-tech early warning system buys about 10 seconds … 1. Tsunami warning information can inform people that they are in danger, but it cannot guarantee people's safety. Japan faces up to failure of its earthquake preparations. Tsunami fragility curves for structural destruction (washed-away structures) [39]. What is the requirement that should be put into place for safer school buildings that can withstand both strong ground shaking and a devastating tsunami? (b) The extent of the tsunami inundation zone with the measurement of the run-up heights at tsunami inundation limit in Sendai Coast [23].Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. Both low-lying and heavily urbanized, Ishinomaki was one of the hardest hit by the March 2011 event. Figure 3 shows an example of a tsunami fragility curve obtained in the 2011 Tohoku event. Seawalls should be designed with the assumption of overtopping and destruction, and communities should not rely on coastal infrastructures alone for protection. Only 62,000 sought shelter, says Kawata. (b) The map of tsunami inundation extent in the 2011 event (www.gsi.go.jp). This manual recommends hazard maps not only for residents but also for companies and fishermen. On March 11, 2011, a devastating 9.0-magnitude quake struck under the Pacific Ocean, and the resulting tsunami caused widespread damage and claimed thousands of lives.   It was the fifth most powerful earthquake ever recorded, and within 30 minutes, a 133-foot high tsunami pummeled Japan's northeastern shoreline. Japan is always ready for earthquakes, because the ground there shakes almost every month, says Samuel Akopyan from the Center of Earthquake Forecasting. Even in Onagawa town, 28 people were saved inside the boiler room of a five-storey RC building which was totally submerged by the tsunami inundation flow. The earthquake was a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’ that had negligibly weak ground shaking, and, therefore, no residents tried to evacuate. The tsunami caused a massive amount of … High rise RC buildings with robust columns and walls can withstand tsunami flow depths over 2 m and can be used for vertical evacuation. Before the 1933 Showa Great Sanriku Tsunami, the countermeasures taken were simply the relocation of residences to higher ground. The variability in size and recurrence interval of great earthquakes in subduction zones cannot be well resolved with seismological studies only, especially for the occurrence of extreme events with a 500- to 1000-year recurrence interval. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 1 Anti-Earthquake Infrastructure 1.1 Gallery 2 Anti-Tsunami Infrastructure 2.1 Sea Wall 2.1.1 Gallery 3 Moving Towns Inland 4 Abolishing nuclear power 5 Scientific research 6 Warning systems 7 External Link 8 References Japan and the areas bordering the … All that remains of the lighthouse is the foundation and part of the concrete seawall. Japan is one of the best tsunami-prepared countries in the world, which is one of the reasons the world is still reeling from the 2011 event. Conceptual image of tsunami-prevention facilities in Sendai city [49].   It was the fifth most powerful earthquake ever recorded, and within 30 minutes, a 133-foot high tsunami pummeled Japan's northeastern shoreline. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. It was centered about 80 miles offshore, and tsunami warnings went up immediately. Note that this fragility curve was obtained using the form of probability of structural destruction as a function of measured tsunami flow depth. Its construction started in 1978 and was completed in 2009, requiring an investment of almost 30 years and 120 billion yen. This contribution revisits the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster specifically focusing on the response, impact and paradigm shift of Japan's disaster management policies and discusses perspectives for enhancing national resilience. In Kesennuma Bay, Fritz et al. Still, it is difficult to determine a precise magnitude within around 3 min for large earthquakes with a magnitude of 8 or more and for ‘tsunami earthquakes’ generating much larger tsunamis than their magnitude would suggest. The powerful earthquake that unleashed a devastating tsunami Friday appears to have moved the main island of Japan by 8 feet (2.4 meters) and shifted the Earth on its axis. Applying a video analysis technique, the tsunami flow velocity can be determined to understand the characteristics of tsunami inland penetration and impact on structures [25–30]. This was the first stage of using computer simulations in tsunami science and engineering. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. A magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off Japan’s northeastern coast, near the Tōhoku region. Integrating structural damage information [36] with field survey data, such as flow depths, produces a new measure of structural vulnerability to tsunamis, as a form of tsunami fragility curve or tsunami fragility function [37]. The tsunami run-up height reached up to 40 m in Iwate prefecture. The 11 March 2011, magnitude 9.0 Honshu, Japan earthquake (38.322 N, 142.369 E, depth 32 km) generated a tsunami observed over the Pacific region and caused tremendous local devastation. Many coastal communities on low-land devastated areas are thus moving uphill by applying for relocation and buy-out programme. (Online version in colour.). The seawall's height was determined by considering historical tsunami heights in the past 150 years and storm surge heights in the past 50 years (Level 1). In the past, nothing has been reported about the devastation of RC structures except for the case of the Scotch Cap lighthouse in Unimak island that was destroyed by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami [40]. Japan should use what it already knows and learn from its experiences in order to prepare more effectively in case of a future natural disaster. Japan's tsunami countermeasures after the 1960 tsunami consisted mainly of the construction of seawalls and coastal dykes, based on the tsunami height in the 1960 event, 3–6 m at most. First, we review the pre-2011 Japan tsunami countermeasures developed from the experience of the past Sanriku tsunami events. This also means less effort is spent trying to establish the details of past tsunami events. (a) Tsunami hazard map published for Kesennuma city, Miyagi prefecture. 113 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<96A81971238E1037A245EF4704FB4BE4>]/Index[97 33]/Info 96 0 R/Length 85/Prev 341940/Root 98 0 R/Size 130/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. In one sense, the belief was right. We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. [41]. Now, JMA has expanded its seismic/tsunami monitoring network by installing broadband seismometers and an offshore tsunami monitoring system, to increase its capability for quicker and more accurate estimation of earthquake magnitude and tsunami [21]. Seawalls should be designed with the assumption of overtopping and destruction, and communities should not rely on coastal infrastructures alone for protection. All the municipalities in the 2011 tsunami-affected areas needed to draft their reconstruction plans following the ‘Act on the Development of Tsunami-resilient Communities’. Coastal infrastructure such as breakwaters and seawalls cannot always protect life and property: even great seawalls can fail. In the 2011 event, hazard maps failed to offer accurate predictions in some areas and may have increased the number of fatalities, as people believed that they did not have to evacuate immediately, even though these maps indicated the uncertainty of estimations based on past events and state-of-the-art computer simulations. Japan should use what it already knows and learn from its experiences in order to prepare more effectively in case of a future natural disaster. N.S. This was critical, because those generators … ��~wGR�lى�/�@�H���s)�gB&���2�+�s&��kǜ�q��� �В� ��t���hGj&�)@0L)�ʖ)c@Q�`���8��}6���z�*�66�����`�]�4�M���DZ ��Ȩ^6�9�"�e#Iޑ��-'IyY�+^�䄷v���㪹��>��I���٧���T�Lp�����w��r��@��D6���g��q�M~����Y���̽�L�eìsٰ\�T��gh�}��ȅ�&�˧ sm��~������!�E�h�K����lQm.>5�|6�|u�|�W�B�w&7��善�P q:�����z����Z���mT�Z�^N����)�6[^.7��=��7��\3%wL�0�eP���O�n�/b�~l�7��p ��pf�/��`��cX����>�t��J��6b�~�Z!|�9�L��2�Ok7ƒ�n�i-�m��~�â De zeebeving nabij Sendai in 2011 was een zware zeebeving die zich voordeed op 11 maart 2011 voor de noordoostkust van het Japanse eiland Honshu.Het epicentrum van de beving, die een kracht van 9,0 - 9,1 op de momentmagnitudeschaal had, bevond zich voor de kust van de prefectuur Miyagi op circa 370 km ten noordoosten van de Japanse hoofdstad Tokio en circa 130 km ten oosten … Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy May 18, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41766 The 2011 Tohoku event provided the first real test of the various technologies and countermeasures that Japan has been using to protect people during tsunamis. Based on this new reconstruction plan in the tsunami-affected area, Sendai city has formulated its tsunami evacuation plan [50] to protect lives. It lasted 6 minutes. The most important lesson is that one should not wait for official information to act: strong ground shaking is the first alert to take action. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. It was found in the 2011 event that this lack of toe protection became a weak point, once overflowed. Figure 5a indicates the plan view for the multiple protection of Sendai city with a 7.2 m seawall and river dyke and 6 m elevated prefectural road. The analysis revealed that Sendai city's multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to a substantial reduction of the tsunami inundation zone and potential losses, combined with an effective tsunami evacuation plan. 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami timeline March 11, 2011: Map of the 2011 Japan earthquake epicenter off the northeast coast of the Tōhoku region of Japan’s Honshu island. Prof. Katada's three principles: not to trust hazard maps (recognize the predictive limits), make the best efforts in any situation and take the initiative of evacuation in a community; these are highly recommended attitudes to overcome a disaster that exceeds all worst-case scenarios. The tsunami created over 300,000 refugees in the Tōhoku region of Japan, and resulted in shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine and fuel for survivors. Black dots on the coastline indicate the points of the 2011 tsunami height measurement. For the largest-possible tsunami level of the more than 150 year recurrence interval, the so-called extreme event (such as the 2011 Tohoku event), the government refers to this as ‘Level 2’ or ‘Preparedness/Mitigation Level’ to protect human lives and to reduce the losses and damage with comprehensive disaster management measures including coastal protection, urban planning, evacuation and public education. (b) The map of tsunami inundation extent in the 2011 event (www.gsi.go.jp). contributes on conception, structure and drafting of the article. Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, March 2011. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. Thirty-year monitoring and measurement of seismic activity around Japan have revealed the seismotectonic structure [10]. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world and the largest in Japan … On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred 231 miles northeast of Tokyo. Coastal residents did not feel any ground shaking and the Japan Metrological Agency did not issue a tsunami warning. The tsunami caused 1280 dead or missing even in this well-prepared community. Especially hard hit was the Okawa elementary school in Ishinomaki city, located 5 km inland along the Kitakami River: the school lost 74 pupils (70 killed and 4 still missing) out of a total of 108 and 10 teachers in the 2011 tsunami. Receiving the tsunami warning from JMA, some residents claimed that they thought they were safe based on the 3 m estimation: they did not feel that they had to evacuate, as they felt safe behind a 10 m seawall. The Sanriku Coast lies on the north-eastern side of the island of Honshu (in the Tohoku region), corresponding to Aomori, Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Congressional Research Service Summary The March 11, 2011, earthquake … In addition, in Sanriku coastal communities, people were taught the lesson or maxim of ‘Tsunami Tendenko’, which means that people should run without taking care of others, even family members [16]. The 2011 tsunami/earthquake. It is through such opportunities to know their risk that people learn that they must try to escape an at-risk area as soon as possible, when they feel strong ground motion or hear the tsunami warning or evacuation order issued. School buildings should have similar construction requirements, in order to ensure children's safety. A tsunami originating in Chile last year triggered an evacuation warning to 1.68 million people in northeastern Japan. Conceptual image of tsunami-prevention facilities in Sendai city [49]. Throughout the case study in Sendai city, the proposed reconstruction plan was evaluated from the tsunami engineering point of view to discuss how the post 2011 paradigm was implemented in coastal communities for future disaster mitigation. VANCOUVER, British Columbia — In 2011, Japan was one of the most prepared countries in the world for a massive earthquake. Everyone knows that Japan is an earthquake-prone country, but the events of March 2011 made it much more real for many of us living in Japan or considering a move to Japan. On the other hand, a hazard map can function to assure residents living outside of the expected inundation zone that their area is not at risk. )Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPointFigure 5. Opinion. Japan issued a tsunami warning within three minutes back in 2011, but lacking that historical data, the authorities underestimated the size of … The nonlinear shallow water equations are discretized by the staggered leap-frog finite difference scheme with bottom friction in the form of Manning's formula according to the land-use condition [37]. The contents of the warning were classified into three categories, according to the estimation of tsunami height: ‘Major tsunami’ (estimated more than 3 m), ‘Tsunami’ (estimated 1 or 2 m) and ‘Advisory’ (0.5 m or less). The response capabilities the children learned at school helped them to overcome a disaster that exceeded all worst-case scenarios. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings/ advisories and for estimating tsunami height, employed a new system in 1999 [18] and updated it using Earthquake Early Warnings (EEWs) in 2006 [19]. Home > Seattle Mama Doc. A violent, magnitude 9-point-zero earthquake on March 11, 2011. 東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō-oki jishin) tapahtui perjantaina 11. maaliskuuta 2011 klo 14.46 paikallista aikaa Japanissa Tōhokun alueella Sendain kaupungin lähellä. Even now, numerical simulations cannot predict everything that will happen in a disaster. The maps seem quite similar in terms of the tsunami inundation extent. Japan's tsunami warning service, set up in 1952, consists of 300 sensors around the archipelago, including 80 aquatic sensors that monitor seismic activity 24/7. A massive 9.0-magnitude earthquake struck Japan, Friday afternoon, on 11 March 2011 @ 0546 GMT 2. It’s easy to think that since you can’t predict when or where an earthquake will occur, or what damage will result, you can’t do much to prepare for one. Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Relief and rebuilding efforts: In the first hours after the earthquake, Japanese Prime Minister Kan Naoto moved to set up an emergency command centre in Tokyo, and a large number of rescue workers and some 100,000 members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force were rapidly mobilized to deal with the crisis. This phrase encourages people to escape by making individual decisions and taking personal responsibility; every individual effort increases the possibility of surviving. In addition, a significant feature of the 2011 tsunami was the wide extent of the inundation zone; for example, on the Sendai plain (figure 2b), the tsunami inundated more than 5 km inland, causing devastating damage to populated areas and rice fields. The bulk of this layer cake is made up of sediment from old … The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large tsunami … Reuters/Air Photo Service/Files. These features implied that the 2011 earthquake was probably a combination of the 1896 Sanriku ‘tsunami earthquake’ and a Jogan-type deeper interplate earthquake [14]. At least 50 min elapsed after the earthquake before the tsunami attacked the school. Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. The aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami included both a humanitarian crisis and massive economic impacts. When the earthquake severed the connection between the nuclear power plant and the Japan electrical grid, the diesel backup system turned on as it was supposed to. Hazard maps have two functional aspects. Consequently, all the instrumentation and control systems at reactors 1–4 were lost, and a series of explosions occurred, causing extensive radioactive contamination. The tsunami source scenarios considered in preparing hazard maps are determined by the results of long-term evaluation of seismic activities. Here is a list of U.S. Navy vessels being positioned for earthquake and tsunami relief, according to the Pentagon. endstream endobj startxref The earthquake itself, although much bigger than usually seen in Japan, was prepared for extensively as they receive many earthquakes every year. This 18 m tall lighthouse built on a cliff 10 m a.s.l. For disaster-affected areas, the central government has amended policies of coastal protection from the viewpoint of reducing risks and enhancing disaster resilience, and local governments have completed drafting reconstruction plans including infrastructure design, transportation, land-use management, urban design, relocation, economic and industrial outlooks. (a) Setting of tsunami prevention facilities in Sendai city reconstruction plan [49]. This finding can inform land-use planning, so that residential areas will not be inundated more than 2 m. Also, we found high-rise RC buildings with robust columns and walls withstood tsunami flow depths over 2 m and can be used for vertical evacuation. March 11, 2011 | Infant, Reader's Picks, School Age, Teens, … One is to tell people that they are at risk. Japan earthquake: country better prepared than anyone for quakes and tsunamis No country on Earth is better prepared than Japan to deal with earthquakes – or the tsunamis that result from them This is one negative aspect of relying heavily on a hazard map. The economic losses reached about 10% of the national budget of the time [4]. Aftershocks continued, many exceeding magnitude-7.0. The great plates are rough and stick together, building up energy that is released as earthquakes. The nation-wide post-tsunami survey results shed light on the mechanisms of structural destruction, tsunami loads and structural vulnerability to inform structural rehabilitation measures and land-use planning. (Online version in colour. Having said that, the type of tsunami it produced was pretty much the same, but with wave heights certainly not expected to exceed 3.0 metres and actually appearing to not exceed about 1.5 m in the … Earthquake source studies indicate that the fault ruptured with a maximum slip of 60–80 m [11] over an area approximately 450 km by 200 km [12], making the pre-2011 estimates irrelevant. The tsunami run-up height reached up to 40 m in Iwate prefecture. For such cases, JMA has introduced methods to quickly highlight the possibility of underestimation in magnitude estimation and issues an initial tsunami warning based on the largest seismic fault expected in the area where the earthquake was triggered [21]. That Japan was not adequately prepared for the tsunami that hit the northeastern Honshu coast on March 11, 2011, first became apparent at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Figure 2 illustrates the measured tsunami inundation and run-up heights by the survey team, with plots of historical tsunami heights of the 1611 Keicho Sanriku, 1896 Meiji Sanriku, and 1933 Showa Sanriku earthquake tsunamis [24]. A tsunami is caused by an earthquake that occurs under the sea and plate cause the sea to jump up causing a massive wave. Tsunami barriers were severely damaged, some reinforced concrete buildings were totally destroyed, and inundation maps underestimated in several areas. Figure 2. A tsunami forecasting chart was drafted empirically. But even this barrier could not protect citizens from the 2011 tsunami, although it earned them a 6 min delay before the tsunami penetrated Kamaishi city, and 40% tsunami height reduction (13.7–8.1 m) in the harbour [7]. The responses to the 2011 event are discussed specifically on the tsunami warning system and efforts to identify the tsunami impacts. “There are earthquake and tsunami warning systems in place in Japan. The tsunami caused 1280 dead or missing even in this well-prepared community.Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. Details of the inundation are discussed by Okal et al. Figure 3. The tsunami height of 3–6 m was not so high in as the near-field tsunamis of the Meiji and Showa events. G>c�A'�}�5b�� e,�?s;���~��>b���$[�j��)�2��;�L�&x�ph�xE�h��>�u}��VJ-�KX�_ �Xx3b�W������U�(ſ�}�OV83\7@��8;��N�!vJwH��q�wU�b/p_�E��Č��:���2�/^��y��s�*8��L�أQ�]�Ϧ��rh#L# �OoH��b�G��tki Ȕ����4��e�'��.p�ֵ9��D�Si}r޳��c��V�6 ���X��j�����h��q���[j2~2M$�)��ŀ���t9��t�Anq�A��� }���6��M�"�l�N^�n��(�YJ�l,��S��a�t���SR���!�\��PxB'��}t�ks�o w�D��r1���宜��lY�[��d�Տ��\�D��E��\ߎ���Iq��H��5n�U3}ξ��E9��o�Ӝ��j�衪.=]�L�RG�j���D�ڣ�ÏM��7�}0�}� After the strong ground shaking had stopped and the tsunami warning had been issued, the teachers and pupils gathered on school grounds to discuss where to evacuate to. 2. 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