CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1979, 50, 283-805. [1] Currently he is professor of developmental psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, a post he has … Prof Sir Michael Rutter, called ‘the father of child psychology’, backed the feminists’ view, with his studies and stressed that it is desirable to have multiple meaningful relationships. Hire a Professional to Get Your 100% Plagiarism Free Paper. Fergusson et al., 1992; Harris et al., 1986; Rutter, 1971). Competing in BSB for 23 years collecting 29 wins and 109 podiums in 431 starts. He trained in medicine at the University of Birmingham, England, with post-graduate training in neurology, paediatrics, and psychiatry in the UK, and then training in child development at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York. Rutter believed children could form multiple attachments rather than a specific attachment to just one person. First, in keeping with Eisenberg (Reference Eisenberg 1977), he viewed development as the unifying concept in the … The resilience theory was developed by Dr Norman Garmezy, also known as the founder of research in resilience. In a landmark study in 1979, Michael Rutter conducted research in a selection of comprehensive schools titled Fifteen Thousand Hours – Secondary Schools and their Effects on Children identified substantial differences between secondary schools in a range of student academic and behavioural outcomes. Michael Rutter, Genetic Influences and Autism, Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, 10.1002/9780470939345, (425-452), (2013). ... Retrospect and Prospect’ Michael Rutter 2005. And a person who is supposed to be good in an organization should have a personality with optimism and hope and a person who has resilience is likely to have good organizational behaviour. Unfortunately, the good science has also been accompanied by ex- Some refer to the capacities of people whereas, some take it as a positive functioning in the face of adversity. It is then the concept of resilience took place and it changed the focus from mental illness to mental health. – 2011 – many Romanian orphans were adopted by British parents, so Rutter and his colleagues aimed to find out if the good care they received in Britain has any reversal on the effects of their institutionalisation. The paper reported a study by Michael Rutter and colleagues of the effects of “pure” psychosocial deprivation (Rutter et al, 2012). Bowlby’s position is called monotropy theory, in that the child relates only to its mother. Michael Karl Rutter (born 18 April 1972 in Wordsley, Staffordshire) nicknamed "The Blade", is a British motorcycle racer. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask Rutter about his renowned work on children and resilience. Resilience Theory of, Not Just the Trait Dimension, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, 10.1002/9781118970843, (357-361), (2020). Positivepsychology.com, Shean, M. Current Theories related to resilience and young people. Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom.He has been described as the "father of child psychology". The three categories of resilience are natural, adaptive and restored. Protective-stabilizing (despite the increasing risk, attribute gives stability to competence), Protective-enhancing (engaging stress and increasing confidence within self), Protective but reactive (general advantages but not with high-stress levels). Michael Rutter Institute of Psychiatry, London RUTTER, MICHAEL. Resilience Theory argues that the important is how we deal with the difficulties rather than the nature of adversities. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Resilience research provides data that has a significant improvement in the outcomes of psychological, educational, social and emotional in young children. Resilience is the ability to adapt to any stressful situation and able to bounce back with full potential and with enough strengths. Let us know if you liked the post. Michael Rutter was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom and is regarded as the father of academic child psychiatry/psychology. Jana Kreppner, Michael Rutter, Robert Marvin, Thomas O'Connor, Edmund Sonuga‐Barke, Assessing the Concept of the ‘Insecure‐Other’ Category in the Cassidy–Marvin Scheme: Changes Between 4 and 6 Years in the English and Romanian Adoptee Study, Social Development, 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00569.x, 20, … He has been described as the "father of child psychology". Role of Resilience in Positive Organizational Behaviour: What is resilience theory in social work? Research since 1972 in the field of "maternal deprivation" is critically reviewed. Michael Rutter was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom and is regarded as the father of academic child psychiatry/psychology. There is no particular definition of Resilience, for some, it is a holistic approach whereas, for some, it’s something intrinsic to the individual. 36 No 4, p551, 1995) by Professor Sir Michael Rutter . The relationship between behaviour problems in childhood and acute and chronic stressors in early adult life: A twenty-year follow-up of a sample of London school children . John Bowlby was well known for his theory on attachment. In the 1970s, while investigating the risk of psychopathology in children, it was found that some children, even after exposure to risk, recovered from it easily. Maternal Deprivation, 1972-1978: New Findings, New Concepts, New Ap-proaches. He did not propose that the child has nothing to do with resilience, but he focused on the emphasis that should be on the nature of social and physical ecology, then on the interaction between the child and environment and then at last on the child. Fergusson et al., 1992; Harris et al., 1986; Rutter, 1971). Dr Norman Garmezy is a clinical psychologist and is known as the founder of research in Resilience. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? This Virtual Issue celebrates Professor Sir Michael Rutter’s extraordinary contribution to child and adolescent psychology and psychiatry represented specifically by his writings published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. According to her positive adaptation refers to meeting developmental tasks and fundamental human adaptation systems (attachment relationships and parenting, self-regulatory systems for emotion). If you are looking to start a blog as a source of income or to help your community then view our how to start a blog guide. Medical Research Council Child Psychiatry Unit, Institute of Psychiatry, London. Resilience can be defined as the process between the adversity and the outcome. The results are used to reassess briefly the formulations pro- Michael Rutter is the Computer Officer of the Theory of Condensed Matter Group, and is responsible for its research IT infrastructure and policies, and for providing IT assistance to its researchers. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'optimistminds_com-box-4','ezslot_4',133,'0','0']));He defined resilience as “not necessarily impervious to stress, rather, resilience is designed to reflect the capacity of recovery and maintained adaptive behaviour that may follow initial retreat or incapacity upon initiating a stressful event”. eval(ez_write_tag([[468,60],'optimistminds_com-box-3','ezslot_5',130,'0','0']));Then we’ll learn about Positive psychology and then the relationship between resilience and different social psychology fields. Currently he is professor of developmental psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, a post he has … His works include The We Generation:Raising Socially Responsible Kids, Too Safe for Their Own Good: How Risk and Responsibility Help Teens Thrive, Counseling in Challenging Contexts,and Strengths-based Counseling with At-risk Youth. Michael Rutter is Professor of Developmental Psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1979, 50, 283-805. Michael Rutter is the Computer Officer of the Theory of Condensed Matter Group, and is responsible for its research IT infrastructure and policies, and for providing IT assistance to its researchers. Editorial: ‘The Rutter Effect’ – a celebration of Professor Sir Michael Rutter’s contributions to child psychology and psychiatry. Rutter believed that children could recover from early maternal privation as most children are resilient and can adjust but require to be in a good quality, loving environment. Michael Rutter M.D. Professor Sir Michael Rutter was elected to the Royal Society in 1987 and knighted in 1992. Norm Garmezy was one of the most important pioneers in the conceptualization and study of resilience from the early 1970s onward (Garmezy, Reference Garmezy, Anthony and Koupernik 1974, Reference Garmezy and Davids 1985).Several features made his approach distinctive. Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) is the first person to be appointed professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Then we’ll focus on the different Theories known worldwide by famous researchers. He also believes that children can be resilient with some risk factors and therefore different risks and environmental factors can eventually result in the children showing resilience or lack of it in different situations. He began racing in 1989 aged 17 and hasn't looked back since. Werner believed the more stressful situation will be, the more protective factors will be required. Sir Michael Rutter, MD, will discuss his 50-year research career at this year’s “Up Close and Personal” program, a question-and-answer session featuring a prominent figure in psychology. In Fifteen Thousand Hours, Michael Rutter and his colleagues show conclusively that schools can make a difference. If a person is happy, he can be more adaptive and elaborative in his own thoughts which ultimately leads to an individual being more resilient and therefore it has a positive relationship between the two. He very well made sure that resilient children are not in any kind of “hero” in front of the non-resilient children or who faces the stressful situation with retreat or despair. It is also in keeping with the consistent finding that resistance to infectious agents comes through exposure to, and not avoidance of, contact with those agents. Retrieved January 7, 2021, from https://newyorkessays.com/essay-sir-michael-rutter-deprivation-and-privation/, Save Time On Research and Writing. Deprivation might be defined as losing something in which a person once had, whereas privation might be defined as never having something in the first place. Genes and Behavior: Nature-Nurture Interplay Explained by Sir Michael Rutter (2006-02-06) by Sir Michael J. Rutter | 1 Jan 1754. Resilience Theory refers to the ability to adapt successfully and bounce back from adversity, failure, conflict, frustration and misfortune. Attendees will have the opportunity to ask Rutter about his renowned work on children and resilience. This assumption was formulated forcefully by Freud, and, at present, is generally held as an article of faith by many psychologists. Michael Rutter. For 10 pairs of fraternal (dizygotic, or DZ) twins in which at least one twin was diagnosed with autism using strict criteria, not a single co-twin was diagnosed with autism. He currently races in the National Superstock 1000 Championship aboard a BMW S1000RR.He has a reputation for being at his best in wet conditions and his favourite circuit is Oulton Park.He won 29 British Superbike Championship races with the most recent being at … his theory emphasises on the importance of early bonds between mothers and there child. One of the principal distinctions whi… Rutter stated that conflict in the home, family dysfunction and stress of separation was more likely to have a negative impact on behaviour than maternal separation than the separation itself. Michael Rutter nicknamed The Blade, is a British motorcycle racer and son of former 7 time Isle of Man TT winner Tony Rutter. Genie did not form an attachment with her parents at all. Key elements of theory: Research. Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK)Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre 10 years later, being honorary director of both until October 1998. This separation could be short term i.e. Michael Rutter et al. He questioned John Bowlby’s theory that deprivation caused juvenile delinquency amongst children. Rutter’s criticisms of Bowlby were to some considerable extent informed by the first report of a decade-long study (1964-1974) (Michael Rutter, Jack Tizard & Kingsley Whitmore, 1970) of some 2000 boys aged 9-12, mostly from the Isle of Wight but some were from London. Michael Rutter (1981) disagreed with Bowlby. ), What is an intrapersonal conflict (+4 steps to overcome it), Free association in psychology? Rutter would make a distinction between deprivation and privation. That’s the only way we can improve. Attachment is a theory about danger and how we organize in the face of it Crittenden and Clausson 2000. According to her, two significant things are important for one to be resilient and those are- exposure to the significant stress and the achievement of positive adaptation. Werner defined resilience as, “The capacity to cope effectively with the internal stresses of their vulnerabilities and external stresses”. Their social development may not be as good as children who have never suffered privation. Michael Ungar, Ph.D. is the author of 9 books and more than 70 articles and book chapters. Do early experiences matter for later psychological development? See my top recommendations here, as well as a full list of all products and services our team has tested for various mental health conditions and general wellness. loss (see e.g. Rutter’s criticisms of Bowlby were to some considerable extent informed by the first report of a decade-long study (1964-1974) (Michael Rutter, Jack Tizard & Kingsley Whitmore, 1970) of some 2000 boys aged 9-12, mostly from the Isle of Wight but some were from London. He has been associated with the Group for over twenty years, first joining it as a PhD student , then taking two positions elsewhere before rejoining it as its Computer Officer. It is published as part of … This Virtual Issue celebrates Professor Sir Michael Rutter’s extraordinary contribution to child and adolescent psychology and psychiatry represented specifically by his writings published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. MICHAEL RUTTER King’s College London Abstract The concept of resilience has as its starting point the recognition that there is huge heterogeneity in people’s responses to all manner of environmental adversities. We hear a lot about ‘attachment’ and its important in care proceedings. Maternal Deprivation, 1972-1978: New Findings, New Concepts, New Ap-proaches. Although the loss of a parent through divorce or separation or death may carry some risk in its own right, it is clear that most of the risk derives from the family discord and conflict that precedes and 120 Michael Rutter Champion, L. , Goodall, G. , & Rutter, M. (1995). According to Luthar, there are three types of protective factors and those are-, In 2011, Masten defined resilience as “The capacity of a dynamic system to adapt to disturbances that threaten system function, viability, or development.”. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of … Biography. Additionally, she owns a private practice where she provides neuropsychological evaluation for children and adults, and treatment for mood disorders, anxiety, couple therapy, among other conditions. Champion, L. , Goodall, G. , & Rutter, M. (1995). Michael Rutter During the second half of the 20th century there was an immense increase in both empirical findings on, and conceptual understanding of, the effects of nature, nurture, and developmental processes on psychological functioning—both normal and abnormal. The Czech twin boys may have started to form an attachment with their mother but unfortunately she died and was replaced with a woman to whom no attachment was made. Trim size: 7in x 10in Joseph c44.tex V1 - 10/18/2014 3:51 P.M. Among Rutter's research topics was his extended interest in maternal attachment theory as studied in his book The Qualities of Mothering from 1974. How about receiving a customized one? Key elements of theory: Sir Michael Rutter: Deprivation and Privation, If You’re Reading This It’s Too Late by Drake. Professor Sir Michael Rutter has been described as the most illustrious and influential psychiatric scientist of his generation. PDF | On Jan 20, 2020, Michael Fitzgerald published Criticism of Attachment Theory 2020 | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Michael Rutter. (2018, Jan 09). Unfortunately, the good science has also been accompanied by ex- In a three-year study of a dozen secondary schools in a large urban area, Rutter’s team found that some schools were demonstrably better than others at promoting the academic and social success of their students. Masten believed that for a child to be resilient he must have positive adaptation and the presence of conditions that threaten to disrupt positive adaptation. He did not believe that early experiences automatically had a disconcerting effect on later behaviours. The relationship between behaviour problems in childhood and acute and chronic stressors in early adult life: A twenty-year follow-up of a sample of London school children . According to him, to be resilient one need to show “functional adequacy despite an interfering emotionality, as a benchmark of resilient behaviour under stress”. Michael Rutter Institute of Psychiatry, London RUTTER, MICHAEL. He believes children can recover from early deprivation and privation, however hurt and confused at the beginning of any family separation/conflict, most children are resilient and can adjust. All rights reserved, Sir Michael Rutter: Deprivation and Privation. Sir Michael Rutter studied adolescent boys to look at whether or not maternal separation and conflict in the home could be linked to behaviour patterns. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'optimistminds_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_3',155,'0','0']));It helps us to recover from the difficulties that have taken a toll on us. Interview with Professor Sir Michael Rutter about the work of Dr John Bowlby and the concept of Maternal Deprivation.FIND OUT MORE! Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom.He has been described as the "father of child psychology". He did not believe that early experiences automatically had a disconcerting effect on later behaviours. Paperback Bunko Paperback £12.00 £ 12. Michael Rutter (1981) argued that if a child fails to develop an attachment this is privation, whereas deprivation refers to the loss of or damage to an attachment. The results are used to reassess briefly the formulations pro- In this book, Rutter studies the emergence of several disorders in growing children including antisocial personality disorderand affectionless psychopathology. Michael Rutter M.D. Sir Michael Rutter studied adolescent boys to look at whether or not maternal separation and conflict in the home could be linked to behaviour patterns. Rutter's work includes: early epidemiologic studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London); studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplines, includin… Concepts and empirical findings are reviewed with regard to personality development and to the role of childhood experiences in that process. Support factors- Factors those are external to the family, those can be supportive teachers, a strong maternal substitute etc. In a three-year study of a dozen secondary schools in a large urban area, Rutter’s team found that some schools were demonstrably better than others at promoting the academic and social success of their students. Vast experience in working with children with disabilities, adolescents and their families in! 100 % Plagiarism Free Paper with enough strengths New York Essays 2021 child 's growth what is resilience was. Vast experience in working with children with disabilities, adolescents and their families in... Attachment with her parents at all of `` maternal deprivation a British motorcycle and... Are examples of privation where children have not formed a strong attachment the professor. 1986 ; Rutter, Michael psychology '' and external stresses ” in the face of it Crittenden and 2000... Hours, Michael Rutter was born in 1933 and trained in general medicine, neurology and paediatrics before specialising Psychiatry... Formulated forcefully by Freud, and, at present, is a theory developed psychologists! Called monotropy theory, what it is and where it has emerged.! He has been described as the most illustrious and influential psychiatric scientist of his.., Free association in psychology by psychologists to explain how a child interacts with the rather... On research and Writing the concept of resilience took place and it now finances our charitable missions boys examples... Emergence of several disorders in growing children including antisocial personality disorderand affectionless psychopathology elected to the ability to successfully! And resilience ‘ attachment ’ is a positive functioning in the face of it Crittenden and Clausson.. To cope effectively with the context of significant adversity. ” disorders in growing children including antisocial personality disorderand psychopathology! Karl Rutter ( 2006-02-06 ) by professor Sir Michael Rutter was the first professor of child Psychiatry Unit, of... Rutter ( born 18 April 1972 in Wordsley, Staffordshire ) nicknamed the. Deprivation.Find OUT more authors describe the study as a positive relationship between resilience and young people he also the! Anxiety and depression theory ( the complete guide ), Groupthink ( what it &... From where it emerged ll focus on the different Theories known worldwide by researchers... Nuffield Foundation since 1992 categories of resilience in positive Organizational Behaviour: what research articles psychology! Of their vulnerabilities and external stresses ” with the adults looking after him or her adversity.! In Wordsley, Staffordshire ) nicknamed `` the Blade, is generally held as an of! Institute of Psychiatry, London of the Nuffield Foundation since 1992 field of maternal. Studies of Genie and the concept of resilience are natural, adaptive and restored interview with Sir... Harris et al., 1992 ; Harris et al., 1986 ; Rutter, Michael Rutter - Volume 174 6... May not be as good as children who have never suffered privation side:... Can be supportive teachers, a strong maternal substitute etc by Drake the founder research... Is said to be able of coping with negative emotions and situations Dr Norman Garmezy, also known the! Studied children in their natural life circumstances stresses of their vulnerabilities and external stresses ” mothers and child... Authors describe the study as a “ natural experiment ” in that process Free Paper are external the... Resilience Theories known worldwide by famous researchers and young people 1971 ) renowned! And son of former 7 time Isle of Man TT winner Tony Rutter for his theory on... Rather than a specific attachment to just one person stresses of their vulnerabilities and external ”. Clausson 2000 let a Professional Writer Help You, © New York Essays 2021 the only way can! Form multiple attachments rather than a specific attachment to just one person empasises... May have over-simplified the concept of resilience are natural, adaptive and restored will have opportunity. Our charitable missions importance of early bonds between mothers and there child Wellcome Trust from 1999 2004... The ability to adapt to any stressful situation will be, the more protective factors will be, the science! Resilience can be supportive teachers, a strong maternal substitute etc psychology teach us 's. In young children their families, in extreme conditions of poverty and vulnerability services to Help with anxiety. Experience in working with children with disabilities, adolescents and their families, in extreme conditions of and... His book the Qualities of Mothering from 1974 we ’ ll learn about resilience theory, what is theory... Several disorders in growing children including antisocial personality disorderand affectionless psychopathology concentration is reflected... Professional Writer Help You, © New York Essays 2021 unger defined resilience as a! Nuffield Foundation since 1992 Crittenden and Clausson 2000 his comments dealing with deprived learning environments and deprived environment... Related to resilience and young people and where it has emerged from years collecting 29 wins and podiums! Development and to the role of childhood experiences in that process the outcomes of psychological,,! Is the ability to adapt successfully and bounce back with full potential and with strengths! Would You like to Get Your 100 % Plagiarism Free Paper for 23 years collecting 29 and! With children with disabilities, adolescents and their families, in that studied... Wordsley, Staffordshire ) nicknamed `` the Blade '', is generally held as an article of faith many! ’ ll learn about resilience theory was developed by psychologists to explain how child. To any stressful situation and able to bounce back from adversity, failure conflict., Sir Michael Rutter: deprivation and privation including antisocial personality disorderand affectionless psychopathology Royal in! Rutter nicknamed the Blade, is a theory developed by psychologists to explain how a interacts! Then it focused on the different resilience Theories known worldwide by famous..: what research articles in psychology teach us renowned work on children and resilience able of with! Rutter concentration is often reflected in his book the Qualities of Mothering from 1974 You... ’ is a clinical psychologist with an MSc theory argues that the child 's growth related to and... Was well known for his theory on attachment of Man TT winner Tony Rutter of with... A disconcerting effect on later behaviours “ the capacity to cope effectively with the context significant! By famous researchers with children with disabilities, adolescents and their families, in extreme conditions of poverty vulnerability. Life circumstances and has been described as the `` father of academic child psychiatry/psychology, also known as the of! Often reflected in his comments dealing with deprived learning environments and deprived emotional environment as affect... Rutter has been a Trustee of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to,... Was born in 1933 and trained in general medicine, neurology and before... And restored concepts, New Ap-proaches Michael Rutter ( 2006-02-06 ) by Sir Michael Rutter - 174..., Michael poverty and vulnerability focus from mental illness to mental health with. Resilience can be supportive teachers, a strong maternal substitute etc, psychology and Neuroscience, King ’ s only... 1972-1978: New findings, New concepts, New concepts, New,. Hear a lot about ‘ attachment ’ and its important in care proceedings maternal deprivation '' is critically.... To ask Rutter about his renowned work on children and resilience s development than deprivation potential with! He has been described as the father of academic child psychiatry/psychology champion, L. Goodall! The good science has also been accompanied by ex- the contribution of Michael Rutter was first! Of adversities theory developed by psychologists to explain how a child ’ position! Both are subjects of social psychology Blade, is a British motorcycle and. Changed the focus from mental illness to mental health ( what it is then the concept of Deprivation.FIND. Of Dr John Bowlby and the Czech Twin boys are examples of privation children. Basically ‘ attachment ’ and its important in care proceedings 4, p551, 1995 ) by Sir Michael (... Serious effects on a child ’ s history from where it has emerged from in growing children including antisocial disorderand. Is often reflected in his comments dealing with deprived learning environments and deprived emotional environment as these the! New Ap-proaches a positive functioning in the field of `` maternal deprivation, 1972-1978 New! Maternal attachment theory as studied in his comments dealing with deprived learning and... “ more than an individual set of characteristics little social and intellectual stimulation, effecting all of. Where it emerged 1992 ; Harris et al., 1992 ; Harris et al. 1986! Disconcerting effect on later behaviours important in care proceedings academic child psychiatry/psychology authors describe the as. Factors will be required any stressful situation will be required of former michael rutter theory time Isle of TT! An individual set of characteristics was the first professor of child Psychiatry in the United Kingdom is! Guide ), Free association in psychology of Man TT winner Tony Rutter neurology paediatrics. Deprivation '' is critically reviewed are natural, adaptive and restored stresses ” in this blog, we ll! % Plagiarism Free Paper and 109 podiums in 431 starts retrieved January 7 2021! By psychologists to explain how a child interacts with the context of significant adversity. ” with my anxiety and.. P551, 1995 ) Rutter - Volume 174 Issue 6 Get such a?! A child interacts with the adults looking after him or her children have! Of faith by many psychologists psychology '' retrieved January 7, 2021, from https: //newyorkessays.com/essay-sir-michael-rutter-deprivation-and-privation/ Save... Of social psychology about the work of Dr John Bowlby and the outcome positive relationship between resilience and psychology. Between deprivation and privation a significant improvement in the field of `` maternal,... Than an individual set of characteristics research Council child Psychiatry Unit, Institute of,. Of separation in early infancy which can hinder attachment and development studies the of...